What are Cryptosporidium and Giardia?
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are parasites that exist in rivers and lakes. These parasites are major causes of diarrhoeal diseases of humans worldwide, and are included in the World Health Organisation's 'Neglected Diseases Initiative'.
Cryptosporidium is a parasitic protozoan that, at some stage of its life, exists alongside the cells that line the intestines of animals and humans. While in the human or animal host, cryptosporidium produces an oocyst, which then forms a dormant protective cyst in the intestines. The cyst is a microscopic particle that can easily be carried by water. The oocyst is discharged from the host to the environment in feces. Giardia also form protective cysts that allow the parasite to survive in the environment until ingested by a host.
Healthy individuals typically recover from the common gastrointestinal effects, however for individuals with weakened or undeveloped immune systems such as AIDS patients, cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, those suffering from viral illnesses such as chicken pox or measles, and malnourished children, it can be life threatening.
Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Malaysia
Cryptosporidium and Giardia occur commonly in Malaysian human and non-human populations. Many Malaysian environments, particularly water and soil, are sufficiently contaminated to act as potential vehicles for the transmission of disease. A study at two river recreational sites, Sungai Congkak and Sungai Batu, with high local and tourist populations have been shown to contain these parasites.
In a different study, the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among HIV-positive patients in the country has been found to range from 3% to 23% and has also been detected in 0·9%–11·4% of children attending hospitals in Malaysia, and in 10·6% of the children surveyed in a community-based study.
Parasite Removal through Filtration
A properly designed, operated, and maintained drinking water treatment system is essential for the protection of water consumers from cryptosporidium and giardia infections. These naturally occurring organisms are highly resistant to inactivation by conventional water treatment processes such as chlorination and thus require high performance mechanical removal technologies.
In order to ensure the safety of the water supply, standards have been established that define the minimum performance requirements for materials and components of water treatment systems. The QCR™ Cyst Reduction filter contains an absolute 1 micron filter media designed to provide a minimum log reduction credit of >3.0 for cysts based on the test requirements of the Long term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2).
Features and Benefits
1 micron Absolute rating – meets or exceeds ANSI NSF 53 Standard of 99.95%.
7.7 square feet of melt blown polypropylene depth media
Intended for bottled water, beverages and small municipal systems
High surface area for high flow rates and long on-stream life
FDA and USP Class IV compliant
Meets UPS 27 Class VI Biological test for Plastics
Constructed of polypropylene or polypropylene and polyethersulfone — compatible with most fluids
Double O-Ring style ends for the highest seal integrity
Various O-Ring materials and configurations — easily retrofits most systems
Download the QCR™ Cyst Reduction filter data sheet, or get in touch to learn more.